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Kotlin与Java的异同点有哪些

发布时间:2021-11-07 00:08:56⊙投诉举报

这篇文章主要介绍“Kotlin与Java的异同点有哪些”,在日常操作中,相信很多人在Kotlin与Java的异同点有哪些问题上存在疑惑,小编查阅了各式资料,整理出简单好用的操作方法,希望对大家解答”Kotlin与Java的异同点有哪些”的疑惑有所帮助!接下来,请跟着小编一起来学习吧!

打印日志

Java

System.out.print("hello world");
System.out.println("hello world");

Kotlin

print("hello world")
println("hello world")

定义变量与常量常

Java

String name = 
"hello world";
final String name = "hello world";

Kotlin

var name = 
"hello world"
val name = "hello world"

null声明

Java

String otherName;
otherName = null;

Kotlin

var otherName : 
String?
otherName = null

空判断

Java

if (text != 
null) {
   int length = text.length();
}

Kotlin

text?.let {
   val length = text.length
}
// or simply
val length = text?.length

字符串拼接

Java

String firstName = 
"Android";
String lastName = "Architect";
String message = "My name is: " + firstName + " " + lastName;

Kotlin

val firstName = 
"Android"
val lastName = "Architect"
val message = "My name is: $firstName $lastName"

换行

Java

String text = 
"First Line\n" +
             "Second Line\n" +
             "Third Line";

Kotlin

val text = 
"""
       |First Line
       |Second Line
       |Third Line
       """.trimMargin()

三元表达式

Java

String text = x > 
5 ? 
"x > 5" : 
"x <= 5";

Kotlin

val text = 
if (x > 
5)
             "x > 5"
          else "x <= 5"

操作符

java

final int andResult  = a & b;
final int orResult   = a | b;
final int xorResult  = a ^ b;
final int rightShift = a >> 2;
final int leftShift  = a << 2;
final int unsignedRightShift = a >>> 2;

Kotlin

val andResult  = a and b
val orResult   = a or b
val xorResult  = a xor b
val rightShift = a shr 2
val leftShift  = a shl 2
val unsignedRightShift = a ushr 2

类型判断和转换 (声明式)

Java

Car car = (Car) 
object;

Kotlin

var car = 
object as Car

类型判断和转换 (隐式)

Java

if (object instanceof Car) {
  Car car = (Car) object;
}

Kotlin

if (object is Car) {
  var car = object // 自动识别
}

Kotlin与Java的异同点有哪些

多重条件

Java

if (score >= 0 && score <= 300) { }

Kotlin

if (score in 0..300) { }

更灵活的case语句

Java

int score = 
// some score;
String grade;
switch (score) {
   case 10:
   case 9:
       grade = "Excellent";
       break;
   case 8:
   case 7:
   case 6:
       grade = "Good";
       break;
   case 5:
   case 4:
       grade = "OK";
       break;
   case 3:
   case 2:
   case 1:
       grade = "Fail";
       break;
   default:
       grade = "Fail";
}

Kotlin

var score = 
// some score
var grade = when (score) {
   9, 10 -> "Excellent"
   in 6..8 -> "Good"
   4, 5 -> "OK"
   in 1..3 -> "Fail"
   else -> "Fail"
}

for循环

Java

for (int i = 1; i <= 10 ; i++) { }

for (int i = 1; i < 10 ; i++) { }

for (int i = 10; i >= 0 ; i--) { }

for (int i = 1; i <= 10 ; i+=2) { }

for (int i = 10; i >= 0 ; i-=2) { }

for (String item : collection) { }

for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry: map.entrySet()) { }

Kotlin

for (i in 1..10) { }

for (i in 1 until 10) { }

for (i in 10 downTo 0) { }

for (i in 1..10 step 2) { }

for (i in 10 downTo 0 step 2) { }

for (item in collection) { }

for ((key, value) in map) { }

更方便的集合操作

Java

final List<Integer> listOfNumber = Arrays.asList(1, 
2, 
3, 
4);

final Map<Integer, String> keyValue = new HashMap<Integer, String>();
map.put(1, "Android");
map.put(2, "Ali");
map.put(3, "Mindorks");

// Java 9
final List<Integer> listOfNumber = List.of(1, 2, 3, 4);

final Map<Integer, String> keyValue = Map.of(1, "Android",
                                            2, "Ali",
                                            3, "Mindorks");

Kotlin

val listOfNumber = listOf(1, 
2, 
3, 
4)
val keyValue = mapOf(1 to "Android",
                    2 to "Ali",
                    3 to "Mindorks")

遍历

Java

// Java 7 and below
for (Car car : cars) {
 System.out.println(car.speed);
}

// Java 8+
cars.forEach(car -> System.out.println(car.speed));

// Java 7 and below
for (Car car : cars) {
 if (car.speed > 100) {
   System.out.println(car.speed);
 }
}

// Java 8+
cars.stream().filter(car -> car.speed > 100).forEach(car -> System.out.println(car.speed));

Kotlin

cars.forEach {
   println(it.speed)
}

cars.filter { it.speed > 100 }
     .forEach { println(it.speed)}

方法定义

Java

void doSomething() {
  // logic here
}

void doSomething(int... numbers) {
  // logic here
}

Kotlin

fun doSomething() {
  // logic here
}

fun doSomething(vararg numbers: Int) {
  // logic here
}

带返回值的方法

Java

int getScore() {
  // logic here
  return score;
}

Kotlin

fun getScore(): 
Int {
  // logic here
  return score
}

// as a single-expression function

fun getScore(): Int = score

无结束符号

Java

int getScore(int value) {
   // logic here
   return 2 * value;
}

Kotlin

fun getScore(value: 
Int): 
Int {
  // logic here
  return 2 * value
}

// as a single-expression function

fun getScore(value: Int): Int = 2 * value

constructor 构造器

Java

public class Utils {

   private Utils() {
     // This utility class is not publicly instantiable
   }

   public static int getScore(int value) {
       return 2 * value;
   }

}

Kotlin

class Utils private constructor() {

   companion object {

       fun getScore(value: Int): Int {
           return 2 * value
       }

   }
}

// another way

object Utils {

   fun getScore(value: Int): Int {
       return 2 * value
   }

}

Get Set 构造器

Java

public class Developer {

   private String name;
   private int age;

   public Developer(String name, int age) {
       this.name = name;
       this.age = age;
   }

   public String getName() {
       return name;
   }

   public void setName(String name) {
       this.name = name;
   }

   public int getAge() {
       return age;
   }

   public void setAge(int age) {
       this.age = age;
   }
}

Kotlin

data class Developer(val name: String, val age: Int)

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